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Tuesday, October 19

Variety Languages in 'Bahasa Indonesia'



- Variations on the basis of their functions or terms of usage

Language variation with respect to users, users or functions called fungsiolek, variety or register. This variation is usually discussed on the basis of usage, style, or level of formality and means of use. Variations of this usage of language based on the field relates to the language used for or what area. For example, in literature, journalism, agriculture, military, shipping, education, etc..

- Variations in terms of formality

According to Martin Joos, language variation is divided into five different styles (variety), namely:
Variety frozen (frozen) is the most formal language variation, which is used in situations solemn and formal ceremony. For example, in sermons, laws, notary certificate, oath, etc..
Range official (formal) is a variation of the language used in state address, official meetings, lectures, textbooks, etc..
Variety of business (consultative) is a variation of a common language used commonly in school talks, meetings, or talks result oriented or production. The realization of this variety are among the diverse range of formal and informal or casual.
Variety casual (casual) is a variation of the language used in situations unofficial invitation to chat family or friends at the time of rest, exercise, recreation, etc.. Variety is widely used allegro form, ie, a shortened form of speech.
Variety intimate (intimate) is a variation of the language commonly used by the speakers who hubngannya already familiar, such as between family members, or friends of friends. Variety is using language that is incomplete, unclear articulation.

- Variations in terms of facilities

Variations in language can also be viewed in terms of means or lines used. In this case can be referred to a variety of oral and written.
Variety is the diversity of languages spoken is expressed through verbal media, related by space and time so the situation can help understanding the disclosure.
Variety wrote was great diversity of languages used by the media writes, is not associated space and time so that the necessary completeness of the structure until the target visually. Variety of language is influenced by the shape, pattern sentences and punctuation.
Goeller (1980) reveals three characteristics of the variety of written language:
- Accuracy (accurate) that kelogisan any information or ideas that are written.
- Bravety (compact) is a concise expression of ideas, not using words redundant and repetitive, and all words used in a sentence is its function.
- Clarity (clear) that is easy to understand writing, reasoning clear (the flow of thoughts is easy to follow by readers, and do not cause a double interpretations.

There are two striking differences observed between the various written and oral language, namely:
- In terms of atmosphere / events
If using written language, of course, people who are not invited to speak in front of us. Therefore there needs to be clarity about the grammatical functions such as subject, predicate, object and relationships between each of these functions must be real and clear. While the spoken language speakers face to face with his interlocutors that grammatical elements are sometimes negligible.
 - In terms of intonation
What distinguishes it is the intonation that is associated with shorter length of the sound / tempo, high-low sound / tone, loud or soft pressure of a difficult symbolized in spelling and punctuation as well as ways of writing.

Examples of the use of different languages in various fields:
- Variety of legal language
Variety of law in Indonesia has a characteristic language of science (Moeliono 1974) namely:
- Gentle and inexact
- Objective and suppress personal bias
- Provide a thorough definition of the name, nature, and the category being investigated to avoid confusion
- Not emotional and avoid interpretations that bersensasi
- Standardize the meaning of words, expression and presentation style

- Variety of journalistic language
Language of journalism is a style of language used by journalists in news writing and referred to as the communication language. Romli, the language used by journalists to write news in the mass media are:
- Communicative that is directly touching the material or to the point
- Specific ie, clear or easy to understand people a lot, saving words, avoid redundant words, obey the rules EYD and short sentences.

With regard to language variation based on the level of class, status and social class of the speakers recognized the existence of language variation akrolek, basilek, vulgal, slang, kulokial, jargon, argoi, and ken. The explanation of language variation are as follows:

  1. Akrolek are social variations that are considered higher or more prestigious social darivariasi other;
  2. Basilek are social variations that are considered less prestigious or even despised;
  3. Vulgal is social variation characteristics appear in the user language from among the less educated or uneducated;
  4. Slang is the social variation that is privileged and confidential;
  5. Kolokial is social variation that is used in everyday conversations that tend to abbreviate the word because it is not a written language. Misalnya dok (dokter), prof (profesor), let (letnan), nda (tidak), dll..; For example dock (doctor), prof (professor), let (lieutenant), nda (not), etc.
  6. Jargon is used social variation limited by a particular social group. For example, the mechanic with the term flywheel, expandable, etc.;
  7. Argot is a social variation that is used in limited by certain professions and confidential. For example, the language of the thief and pickpocket eye glass means the police;
  8. Ken is a social variation pitched pleading, whining made full of pretense. For example, variations in the language of the beggars.

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